The clipper type of ship is developed by American shipbuilders.

Until the beginning of the 19th century the European way of shipbuilding prevailed. Traditionally the bow was full and round to concur waves. An old principle used by shipbuilders was: the a hull should have the head of a cod and the tail of a mackerel.

The Americans, not hindered by tradition, at the end of the 18th century started experiments with sharp bows, first applied at ships with schooner rigging (Baltimore clipper). These ships were fast vessels and ideal ships to break the English blockade at the time of the Independence War.

During the 19th century competition increased hence the need for faster ships. Thus also European shipowners introduced the fast clipper type of ship which grew larger and were rigged with square sails (tea clipper).

With the introduction of modern materials like steel and iron, shipssize increased again upto a cargo capacity of 5.000 tons. These ships were equipped with three, four and in some cases five masts (windjammer). The Thomas W. Lawson had even seven masts, she was one of the last large sailingships. Due to the competition of the upcoming steamships the era of sailing came to an end.

Although windjammers and clippers are regarded to have the same basic design, the hull of clippers is optimized for speed, while windjammers are optimized for cargo.

Large sailing-ship with three or more masts are mainly named after their rigging

References

Wikepedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clipper
Wikepedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windjammer
Tea Council: www.tea.co.uk/page.php?id=97
Seakayak: www.seakayak.ws/kayak/kayak.nsf/1/07A965EE63639CC5852570DC006ABB98

Full rigged

Ships with square sails on all masts are called a full(y) rigged ship or sometimes a frigate (although this last term is more appropriate for military sailing-ships). Between the masts and between the foremast and http://www.simonsships.com/ships/spars.php?lan=en#bowsprit">bowsprit stay-sails are maintained. Such a vast number of sails required a large sailingcrew. When wages from 1850 onwards increases (due to the industrialization low cost labour became scarcer) this riggingtype was outcompeted by the barque. Only navy vessels remained full rigged.
The ARA Libertad is a good example of a full rigged ship

References

Wikepedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Full-rigged_ship
In-Arch.net:www.in-arch.net/Sqrigg/squrig.html

Barque

In the Golden Age of Sail (the second half of the 19th century) the barques became the workhorses for ocean going merchant marine. A barque has square sails on all mast but the aft mast (mizzen- or jiggermast). Although full rigged ship are the fasted sailing ships, barques nearly match them, while a lesser and therefor cheaper crew is needed. Also their windward capabilities are better.
An example is the famous Kruzenstern.

References

Wikepedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barque
Gonola: www.gonola.com/2012/04/11/barques-and-barquentines-the-tall-ships-of-
nola-navy-week.html

Schooner

A vessel with gaffsails on all masts is called a schooner. The first schooner based design was developed by the Dutch in the 16th century. They became very popular after development of the Baltimore clippers. Schooners are especially usable in coast-trade for there speed combined with windward capabilities. Of all large sailingvessels a schooner has the best close-hauled capacity. Some schooners carry a topsail above the gaffsail and are called topsail-schooners. Also one or more squaresails on the foremast are used. They are called square-topsail schooners.
The Juan Sebastian Elcano is the largest four mast square-topsail schooner.

References

Wikepedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schooner
Suite 101: suite101.com/article/history-of-the-schooner-a137305

Barquentine

A vessel with squaresails on the foremast (no gaffsail) and only gaffsails on the other masts is called a barquentine. She is a mix of schooner windward capabilities and barque good performances before the wind. The largest barquentine is the Chilean Esmeralda, but the majority of barquentines is much smaller. The Italian sail training vessel Palinuro is a good example.

References

Wikepedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barquentine
Gonola: www.gonola.com/2012/04/11/barques-and-barquentines-the-tall-ships-of-
nola-navy-week.html